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The relative effects of a Pinus plantation on the hydrology of an Atlantic dune system. (Newborough Warren case study)

Martin Hollingham (2008)

Water level records

As part of CCW research 13 piezometers were placed in two transects (1 A-1F and 2A - 2G) from the Forest out into the Warren (figure 2). Water levels were recorded from June 1989 to May 1996. Monitoring of water levels recommenced in April 2005. Not all the CCW piezometers were discovered at the same time, and to this day the locations of piezometers 1D, 2A, 2C, and 2G are still not known and no records for them exist after 1996. Three additional piezometers were also found in April 2005 labelled with the prefix NW (figure 2), the 2006-2008 records for two of these are used in the analysis.

Since May 2006, a further twenty piezometers have been added, labelled with the prefix CEH (Centre of Hydrology and Ecology, who kindly paid for the casings) and numbered in the order of installation. Fourteen piezometers were installed in May 2006, a further four in July 2007, and another two in October 2008. The locations of the piezometers used in the analysis are shown in figure 2, and table 1 summarises the piezometer records used.

Figure 2: Locations of the piezometers used in the analysis.


Meteorological Records

The nearest UK meteorological station to Newborough is RAF valley, which is on the same coastline, but 13 miles North West . Rainfall records are available from December 1930 until February 2008. Rainfall from a raingauge in Newborough was used from March to September 2008. Actual Evapotranspiration (AEt) data for the area covering Newborough was obtained from the MORECS data from the UK Met office. Estimates for actual evapotranspiration for the different vegetation types were estimated by Betson and Scholefield, (2004), but have been found to be inaccurate ( Stratford , 2006), but should be in the region of 75% for the Forest and the Warren 65% of precipitation (Freeman, 2008).


Table 1: Rainfall (1931-2000 average), actual evapotranspiration, effective precipitation estimates from Betson and Scholefield, (2004).

P (mm)
AEt (mm)
EP (mm)
AEt as % of rain
Fixed dune



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Copyright © Martin Hollingham